Official title: Jomhuri-ye Eslami-ye Iran
international short form: Iran
international long form: Islamic Republic of Iran
former name: Persia
ISO Country Code: ir, irn
Local Time = UTC +3.5h
Summer UTC +4.5
Country Calling Code: +98
Capital City: Tehran
the biggest Cities of Iran (Iran has 31 provinces)
Government type: Islamic republic
Head of state: Leader of the Islamic Revolution Ayatollah Ali Hosseini-Khamenei
Independence day: 1 April 1979 (Islamic Republic of Iran proclaimed)
Constitution: confirmed December 1979, revised 1989 to expand powers of the presidency and eliminate the prime ministership.
Location: Middle East bordering the Gulf of Oman, the Persian Gulf, and the Caspian Sea.
Area: 1.6 million km²
Terrain: Desert and mountains.
Semiarid; subtropical along the Caspian coast.
Population: 79 million (in 2017).
GNI per capita PPP: $ 8 065 (year)
Ethnic groups: Persians 51%, Azeri 24%, Gilaki and Mazandarani 8%, Kurd 7%, Arab 3%, Lur 2%, Baloch 2%, Turkmen 2%, other 1%.
Religions: Shi'a Muslim 89%; Sunni Muslim 9%; Zoroastrian, Jewish, Christian, and Baha'i 2%.
Languages: Persian and Persian dialects 58%, Turkic and Turkic dialects 26%, Kurdish 9%, Luri 2%, Balochi 1%, Arabic 1%, Turkish 1%, other.
Petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, iron ore, lead, manganese, zinc, sulfur.
Wheat, rice, other grains, sugar beets, fruits, nuts, cotton; dairy products, wool; caviar.
Petroleum, petrochemicals, textiles, cement and other construction materials, food processing (particularly sugar refining and vegetable oil production), metal fabrication, armaments.
Exports – commodities
petroleum 80%, chemical and petrochemical products, fruits and nuts, carpets, cement, ore
Exports – partners
China 22.2%, India9.9%, Turkey 8.4%, Japan 4.5% (2015)
Imports – commodities
industrial supplies, capital goods, foodstuffs and other consumer goods, technical services
Imports – partners
UAE 39.6%, China 22.4%, South Korea 4.7%, Turkey 4.6% (2015)
Iranian Rail (IRR)